TypecheckingA Typechecker for STLC

The has_type relation of the STLC defines what it means for a term to belong to a type (in some context). But it doesn't, by itself, give us an algorithm for checking whether or not a term is well typed.
Fortunately, the rules defining has_type are syntax directed — that is, for every syntactic form of the language, there is just one rule that can be used to give a type to terms of that form. This makes it straightforward to translate the typing rules into clauses of a typechecking function that takes a term and a context and either returns the term's type or else signals that the term is not typable.
This short chapter constructs such a function and proves it correct.
Set Warnings "-notation-overridden,-parsing".
From Coq Require Import Bool.Bool.
From PLF Require Import Maps.
From PLF Require Import Smallstep.
From PLF Require Import Stlc.
From PLF Require MoreStlc.

Module STLCTypes.
Export STLC.

Comparing Types

First, we need a function to compare two types for equality...
Fixpoint eqb_ty (T1 T2:ty) : bool :=
  match T1,T2 with
  | Bool, Bool
      true
  | Arrow T11 T12, Arrow T21 T22
      andb (eqb_ty T11 T21) (eqb_ty T12 T22)
  | _,_ ⇒
      false
  end.
... and we need to establish the usual two-way connection between the boolean result returned by eqb_ty and the logical proposition that its inputs are equal.
Lemma eqb_ty_refl : T1,
  eqb_ty T1 T1 = true.
Proof.
  intros T1. induction T1; simpl.
    reflexivity.
    rewrite IHT1_1. rewrite IHT1_2. reflexivity. Qed.

Lemma eqb_ty__eq : T1 T2,
  eqb_ty T1 T2 = trueT1 = T2.
Proof with auto.
  intros T1. induction T1; intros T2 Hbeq; destruct T2; inversion Hbeq.
  - (* T1=Bool *)
    reflexivity.
  - (* T1=Arrow T1_1 T1_2 *)
    rewrite andb_true_iff in H0. inversion H0 as [Hbeq1 Hbeq2].
    apply IHT1_1 in Hbeq1. apply IHT1_2 in Hbeq2. subst... Qed.
End STLCTypes.

The Typechecker

The typechecker works by walking over the structure of the given term, returning either Some T or None. Each time we make a recursive call to find out the types of the subterms, we need to pattern-match on the results to make sure that they are not None. Also, in the app case, we use pattern matching to extract the left- and right-hand sides of the function's arrow type (and fail if the type of the function is not Arrow T11 T12 for some T11 and T12).
Module FirstTry.
Import STLCTypes.

Fixpoint type_check (Gamma : context) (t : tm) : option ty :=
  match t with
  | var x
      Gamma x
  | abs x T11 t12
      match type_check (update Gamma x T11) t12 with
      | Some T12Some (Arrow T11 T12)
      | _None
      end
  | app t1 t2
      match type_check Gamma t1, type_check Gamma t2 with
      | Some (Arrow T11 T12),Some T2
          if eqb_ty T11 T2 then Some T12 else None
      | _,_ ⇒ None
      end
  | tru
      Some Bool
  | fls
      Some Bool
  | test guard t f
      match type_check Gamma guard with
      | Some Bool
          match type_check Gamma t, type_check Gamma f with
          | Some T1, Some T2
              if eqb_ty T1 T2 then Some T1 else None
          | _,_ ⇒ None
          end
      | _None
      end
  end.

End FirstTry.

Digression: Improving the Notation

Before we consider the properties of this algorithm, let's write it out again in a cleaner way, using "monadic" notations in the style of Haskell to streamline the plumbing of options. First, we define a notation for composing two potentially failing (i.e., option-returning) computations:
Notation " x <- e1 ;; e2" := (match e1 with
                              | Some xe2
                              | NoneNone
                              end)
         (right associativity, at level 60).
Second, we define return and fail as synonyms for Some and None:
Notation " 'return' e "
  := (Some e) (at level 60).

Notation " 'fail' "
  := None.

Module STLCChecker.
Import STLCTypes.
Now we can write the same type-checking function in a more imperative-looking style using these notations.
Fixpoint type_check (Gamma : context) (t : tm) : option ty :=
  match t with
  | var x
      match Gamma x with
      | Some Treturn T
      | Nonefail
      end
  | abs x T11 t12
      T12 <- type_check (update Gamma x T11) t12 ;;
      return (Arrow T11 T12)
  | app t1 t2
      T1 <- type_check Gamma t1 ;;
      T2 <- type_check Gamma t2 ;;
      match T1 with
      | Arrow T11 T12
          if eqb_ty T11 T2 then return T12 else fail
      | _fail
      end
  | tru
      return Bool
  | fls
      return Bool
  | test guard t1 t2
      Tguard <- type_check Gamma guard ;;
      T1 <- type_check Gamma t1 ;;
      T2 <- type_check Gamma t2 ;;
      match Tguard with
      | Bool
          if eqb_ty T1 T2 then return T1 else fail
      | _fail
      end
  end.

Properties

To verify that the typechecking algorithm is correct, we show that it is sound and complete for the original has_type relation — that is, type_check and has_type define the same partial function.
Theorem type_checking_sound : Gamma t T,
  type_check Gamma t = Some Thas_type Gamma t T.
Proof with eauto.
  intros Gamma t. generalize dependent Gamma.
  induction t; intros Gamma T Htc; inversion Htc.
  - (* var *) rename s into x. destruct (Gamma x) eqn:H.
    rename t into T'. inversion H0. subst. eauto. solve_by_invert.
  - (* app *)
    remember (type_check Gamma t1) as TO1.
    destruct TO1 as [T1|]; try solve_by_invert;
    destruct T1 as [|T11 T12]; try solve_by_invert;
    remember (type_check Gamma t2) as TO2;
    destruct TO2 as [T2|]; try solve_by_invert.
    destruct (eqb_ty T11 T2) eqn: Heqb.
    apply eqb_ty__eq in Heqb.
    inversion H0; subst...
    inversion H0.
  - (* abs *)
    rename s into x. rename t into T1.
    remember (update Gamma x T1) as G'.
    remember (type_check G' t0) as TO2.
    destruct TO2; try solve_by_invert.
    inversion H0; subst...
  - (* tru *) eauto.
  - (* fls *) eauto.
  - (* test *)
    remember (type_check Gamma t1) as TOc.
    remember (type_check Gamma t2) as TO1.
    remember (type_check Gamma t3) as TO2.
    destruct TOc as [Tc|]; try solve_by_invert.
    destruct Tc; try solve_by_invert;
    destruct TO1 as [T1|]; try solve_by_invert;
    destruct TO2 as [T2|]; try solve_by_invert.
    destruct (eqb_ty T1 T2) eqn:Heqb;
    try solve_by_invert.
    apply eqb_ty__eq in Heqb.
    inversion H0. subst. subst...
Qed.

Theorem type_checking_complete : Gamma t T,
  has_type Gamma t Ttype_check Gamma t = Some T.
Proof with auto.
  intros Gamma t T Hty.
  induction Hty; simpl.
  - (* T_Var *) destruct (Gamma x0) eqn:H0; assumption.
  - (* T_Abs *) rewrite IHHty...
  - (* T_App *)
    rewrite IHHty1. rewrite IHHty2.
    rewrite (eqb_ty_refl T11)...
  - (* T_True *) eauto.
  - (* T_False *) eauto.
  - (* T_If *) rewrite IHHty1. rewrite IHHty2.
    rewrite IHHty3. rewrite (eqb_ty_refl T)...
Qed.

End STLCChecker.

Exercises

Exercise: 5 stars, standard (typechecker_extensions)

In this exercise we'll extend the typechecker to deal with the extended features discussed in chapter MoreStlc. Your job is to fill in the omitted cases in the following.
Module TypecheckerExtensions.
(* Do not modify the following line: *)
Definition manual_grade_for_type_checking_sound : option (nat*string) := None.
(* Do not modify the following line: *)
Definition manual_grade_for_type_checking_complete : option (nat*string) := None.
Import MoreStlc.
Import STLCExtended.

Fixpoint eqb_ty (T1 T2 : ty) : bool :=
  match T1,T2 with
  | Nat, Nat
      true
  | Unit, Unit
      true
  | Arrow T11 T12, Arrow T21 T22
      andb (eqb_ty T11 T21) (eqb_ty T12 T22)
  | Prod T11 T12, Prod T21 T22
      andb (eqb_ty T11 T21) (eqb_ty T12 T22)
  | Sum T11 T12, Sum T21 T22
      andb (eqb_ty T11 T21) (eqb_ty T12 T22)
  | List T11, List T21
      eqb_ty T11 T21
  | _,_ ⇒
      false
  end.

Lemma eqb_ty_refl : T1,
  eqb_ty T1 T1 = true.
Proof.
  intros T1.
  induction T1; simpl;
    try reflexivity;
    try (rewrite IHT1_1; rewrite IHT1_2; reflexivity);
    try (rewrite IHT1; reflexivity). Qed.

Lemma eqb_ty__eq : T1 T2,
  eqb_ty T1 T2 = trueT1 = T2.
Proof.
  intros T1.
  induction T1; intros T2 Hbeq; destruct T2; inversion Hbeq;
    try reflexivity;
    try (rewrite andb_true_iff in H0; inversion H0 as [Hbeq1 Hbeq2];
         apply IHT1_1 in Hbeq1; apply IHT1_2 in Hbeq2; subst; auto);
    try (apply IHT1 in Hbeq; subst; auto).
 Qed.

Fixpoint type_check (Gamma : context) (t : tm) : option ty :=
  match t with
  | var x
      match Gamma x with
      | Some Treturn T
      | Nonefail
      end
  | abs x1 T1 t2
      T2 <- type_check (update Gamma x1 T1) t2 ;;
      return (Arrow T1 T2)
  | app t1 t2
      T1 <- type_check Gamma t1 ;;
      T2 <- type_check Gamma t2 ;;
      match T1 with
      | Arrow T11 T12
          if eqb_ty T11 T2 then return T12 else fail
      | _fail
      end
  | const _
      return Nat
  | scc t1
      T1 <- type_check Gamma t1 ;;
      match T1 with
      | Natreturn Nat
      | _fail
      end
  | prd t1
      T1 <- type_check Gamma t1 ;;
      match T1 with
      | Natreturn Nat
      | _fail
      end
  | mlt t1 t2
      T1 <- type_check Gamma t1 ;;
      T2 <- type_check Gamma t2 ;;
      match T1, T2 with
      | Nat, Natreturn Nat
      | _,_ ⇒ fail
      end
  | test0 guard t f
      Tguard <- type_check Gamma guard ;;
      T1 <- type_check Gamma t ;;
      T2 <- type_check Gamma f ;;
      match Tguard with
      | Natif eqb_ty T1 T2 then return T1 else fail
      | _fail
      end

  (* Complete the following cases. *)
  
  (* sums *)
  (* FILL IN HERE *)
  (* lists (the tlcase is given for free) *)
  (* FILL IN HERE *)
  | tlcase t0 t1 x21 x22 t2
      match type_check Gamma t0 with
      | Some (List T) ⇒
          match type_check Gamma t1,
                type_check (update (update Gamma x22 (List T)) x21 T) t2 with
          | Some T1', Some T2'
              if eqb_ty T1' T2' then Some T1' else None
          | _,_ ⇒ None
          end
      | _None
      end
  (* unit *)
  (* FILL IN HERE *)
  (* pairs *)
  (* FILL IN HERE *)
  (* let *)
  (* FILL IN HERE *)
  (* fix *)
  (* FILL IN HERE *)
  | _None (* ... and delete this line when you complete the exercise. *)
  end.
Just for fun, we'll do the soundness proof with just a bit more automation than above, using these "mega-tactics":
Ltac invert_typecheck Gamma t T :=
  remember (type_check Gamma t) as TO;
  destruct TO as [T|];
  try solve_by_invert; try (inversion H0; eauto); try (subst; eauto).

Ltac analyze T T1 T2 :=
  destruct T as [T1 T2| |T1 T2|T1| |T1 T2]; try solve_by_invert.

Ltac fully_invert_typecheck Gamma t T T1 T2 :=
  let TX := fresh T in
  remember (type_check Gamma t) as TO;
  destruct TO as [TX|]; try solve_by_invert;
  destruct TX as [T1 T2| |T1 T2|T1| |T1 T2];
  try solve_by_invert; try (inversion H0; eauto); try (subst; eauto).

Ltac case_equality S T :=
  destruct (eqb_ty S T) eqn: Heqb;
  inversion H0; apply eqb_ty__eq in Heqb; subst; subst; eauto.

Theorem type_checking_sound : Gamma t T,
  type_check Gamma t = Some Thas_type Gamma t T.
Proof with eauto.
  intros Gamma t. generalize dependent Gamma.
  induction t; intros Gamma T Htc; inversion Htc.
  - (* var *) rename s into x. destruct (Gamma x) eqn:H.
    rename t into T'. inversion H0. subst. eauto. solve_by_invert.
  - (* app *)
    invert_typecheck Gamma t1 T1.
    invert_typecheck Gamma t2 T2.
    analyze T1 T11 T12.
    case_equality T11 T2.
  - (* abs *)
    rename s into x. rename t into T1.
    remember (update Gamma x T1) as Gamma'.
    invert_typecheck Gamma' t0 T0.
  - (* const *) eauto.
  - (* scc *)
    rename t into t1.
    fully_invert_typecheck Gamma t1 T1 T11 T12.
  - (* prd *)
    rename t into t1.
    fully_invert_typecheck Gamma t1 T1 T11 T12.
  - (* mlt *)
    invert_typecheck Gamma t1 T1.
    invert_typecheck Gamma t2 T2.
    analyze T1 T11 T12; analyze T2 T21 T22.
    inversion H0. subst. eauto.
  - (* test0 *)
    invert_typecheck Gamma t1 T1.
    invert_typecheck Gamma t2 T2.
    invert_typecheck Gamma t3 T3.
    destruct T1; try solve_by_invert.
    case_equality T2 T3.
  (* FILL IN HERE *)
  - (* tlcase *)
    rename s into x31. rename s0 into x32.
    fully_invert_typecheck Gamma t1 T1 T11 T12.
    invert_typecheck Gamma t2 T2.
    remember (update (update Gamma x32 (List T11)) x31 T11) as Gamma'2.
    invert_typecheck Gamma'2 t3 T3.
    case_equality T2 T3.
  (* FILL IN HERE *)
Qed.

Theorem type_checking_complete : Gamma t T,
  has_type Gamma t Ttype_check Gamma t = Some T.
Proof.
  intros Gamma t T Hty.
  induction Hty; simpl;
    try (rewrite IHHty);
    try (rewrite IHHty1);
    try (rewrite IHHty2);
    try (rewrite IHHty3);
    try (rewrite (eqb_ty_refl T));
    try (rewrite (eqb_ty_refl T1));
    try (rewrite (eqb_ty_refl T2));
    eauto.
  - destruct (Gamma x); try solve_by_invert. eauto.
  Admitted. (* ... and delete this line *)
(* 
Qed. (* ... and uncomment this one *)
*)

End TypecheckerExtensions.

Exercise: 5 stars, standard, optional (stlc_step_function)

Above, we showed how to write a typechecking function and prove it sound and complete for the typing relation. Do the same for the operational semantics — i.e., write a function stepf of type tm option tm and prove that it is sound and complete with respect to step from chapter MoreStlc.
Module StepFunction.
Import MoreStlc.
Import STLCExtended.

(* Operational semantics as a Coq function. *)
Fixpoint stepf (t : tm) : option tm
  (* REPLACE THIS LINE WITH ":= _your_definition_ ." *). Admitted.

(* Soundness of stepf. *)
Theorem sound_stepf : t t',
    stepf t = Some t't --> t'.
Proof. (* FILL IN HERE *) Admitted.

(* Completeness of stepf. *)
Theorem complete_stepf : t t',
    t --> t'stepf t = Some t'.
Proof. (* FILL IN HERE *) Admitted.

End StepFunction.

Exercise: 5 stars, standard, optional (stlc_impl)

Using the Imp parser described in the ImpParser chapter of Logical Foundations as a guide, build a parser for extended STLC programs. Combine it with the typechecking and stepping functions from the above exercises to yield a complete typechecker and interpreter for this language.
Module StlcImpl.
Import StepFunction.

(* FILL IN HERE *)
End StlcImpl.
(* Wed Jan 9 12:05:12 EST 2019 *)